Application Status Of Solar Cells
Solar cells are mainly based on semiconductor materials, and their working principle is to use photoelectric materials to absorb light energy and generate photovoltaic reactions. According to the different materials used, solar cells can be divided into:
1. Silicon solar cells;
2. Battery made of inorganic salts such as gallium arsenide III-V compound, cadmium sulfide, copper indium selenium, and other poly compounds;
3. Solar cells prepared by functional polymer materials;
4. Nanocrystalline solar cells, etc.
1. Photovoltaic power generation
According to Dataquest, 136 countries around the world are engaged in the adoption of solar cells, and 95 of them are engaged in large-scale solar cell research and development and are actively producing all kinds of new energy-saving products. In 1998, the total capacity of solar cells produced in the world reached 1000 MW, and in 1999, it reached 2850 MW. According to the prediction of Epia, the European photovoltaic industry association in 2008, if the global installed capacity in 2007 is 2.4GW, the global installed capacity will reach 6.9GW in 2010, 56GW and 281GW in 2020 and 2030 respectively, and the global accumulated installed capacity in 2010 is 25.4GW. It is expected to reach 278GW in 2020 and 1864GW in 2030. Global solar cell production has grown rapidly at a compound annual growth rate of 47%, reaching 6.9GW in 2008.
Many countries are developing mid - and long-term solar development plans to prepare for large-scale development of solar energy in the 21st century, such as the U.S. Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic program and Japan's Sunshine Program. The NREL Pv Program is an important part of the U.S. National Pv Program, which carries out research work in five areas: monocrystalline silicon and advanced devices, thin-film PV technology, PVMaT, PHOTOVOLTAIC modules, and system performance and engineering, photovoltaic applications and market development.
The Us has also launched the Solar Street Lamp Project, which aims to convert streetlights in some US cities to be powered by solar energy, saving 800 kilowatt-hours per street lamp per year. Japan is also carrying out the "70,000 units of solar energy project". The solar house power generation system that Japan is planning to popularize is mainly the solar cell power generation equipment installed on the roof of the house, and the surplus electricity used by households can be sold to the power company. A typical home can install a system that generates 3,000 watts. In Europe, the research and development of solar cells are included in the famous "Eureka" high-tech plan, which launched a project of 100,000 units. These "solar project" programs, which mainly focus on the popularization and application of photovoltaic cells, are one of the important driving forces for the development of the solar photovoltaic cell industry.
In Europe, Japan, South Korea, and a total of eight countries decided to work together, in the interior of Asia and Africa desert area to build the world's largest solar power station, their goal is to share the global land area of about a quarter of the desert regions of sunshine for a long time effective utilization of resources, to 300000 users with 1 million kilowatts of electricity. The project will take four years to complete, starting in 2001.
The United States and Japan have the largest market share in the world PV market. The United States has the largest PV plant in the world, at 7MW, and Japan has built a 1MW PV plant. There are 230,000 photovoltaic installations worldwide, with Israel, Australia, and New Zealand leading the way.
Since the 1990s, the global solar cell industry has been growing at an annual rate of 15%. According to the latest statistics and forecasts released by Dataquest, the total investment in solar energy research and development in the United States, Japan, and western European industrialized countries reached $57 billion in 1998; $64.6 billion in 1999; $70 billion in 2000; $82 billion in 2001; It is expected to exceed 100 billion dollars in 2002.
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