How Electrolyte Temperature Affects the Battery Capacity of a Lead-Acid Battery
The electrolyte temperature has a great influence on the capacity value that the lead-acid battery can supply under a certain discharge rate and termination voltage condition F. The temperature of the electrolyte increases, the discharge capacity increases, the temperature decreases, and the discharge capacity decrease.
The decrease of battery capacity with decreasing temperature is closely related to the severe influence of temperature on electrolyte viscosity and resistance. When the temperature is low, the viscosity of the electrolyte increases, the movement of ions is subjected to a greater positive force, the dispersion ability of the electrolyte decreases, and the concentration polarization increases sharply; at the same time, when the temperature is low, the resistance of the electrolyte also increases, resulting in electrochemical service Polarization and ohmic polarization also increase, and the capacity also decreases.
In addition, when the temperature is low, the saturation of lead sulfate in the electrolyte also decreases, which will inevitably lead to an increase in the supersaturation of lead ions (Pb2+) near the plate, forming a dense lead sulfate layer, which hinders the active material from interacting with the electrolyte. contact, which also leads to a reduction in battery capacity.
Two points need to be emphasized here: first, the negative plate is more sensitive to the influence of temperature than the iE plate. This also shows that in order to improve the low-temperature or high-current discharge performance of the battery, battery manufacturers usually only add corresponding additives to the negative electrode paste; The battery loses part of its capacity because as long as the battery is heated to increase the temperature of the electrolyte, the lead-acid battery can still release its rated discharge capacity.